Microcephaly is an uncommon neurological ailment in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than other kids of the same age and gender. Microcephaly, which is sometimes discovered at birth, arises when there is an issue with brain growth in pregnancy or when the brain stops expanding after birth.
A range of genes and environmental influences can contribute to microcephaly. Children with microcephaly frequently have developmental problems. Although there is no cure for microcephaly, early intervention with speech, occupational, and other supporting treatments can aid a child's development and quality of life.
1. The early fusion of the joints (sutures) that build an infant's skull prevents the brain from expanding. To treat craniosynostosis, an infant usually requires surgery to disconnect the fused bones. This operation removes pressure on the brain, allowing it to grow and develop normally.
2. Genetic alterations Microcephaly can be caused by Down syndrome and other diseases.
3. Reduced oxygen supply to the embryonic brain (cerebral anoxia). Certain pregnancy or delivery difficulties can decrease oxygen flow to a baby's brain.
4. During pregnancy, infections are passed on to the fetus. Toxoplasmosis, CMV, German measles (rubella), chickenpox (varicella), and Zika virus are among them.
5. Prenatal exposure to drugs, alcohol, or certain hazardous substances. Any of these factors could have an impact on neurodevelopment during pregnancy.
6. A lack of nutrition during pregnancy may harm baby's brain development.
7. The mother has untreated phenylketonuria, also called PKU. PKU impairs the mother's capacity to break down the amino acid phenylalanine and may disrupt the fetus's brain development during pregnancy.
The appearance of the baby’s head is very small,High-pitched cry,Poor feeding,Seizures,Increased movement of the arms and legs (spasticity),Developmental delays,Intellectual disability
Developmental delay,Seizures,Language processing,Feeding problems,Sensory processing